Technical Notes

Electrical Characteristics of Solids

Technical Notes

When it comes to electrical characteristics, solid matter falls into one of three categories: it is either a conductor, an insulator, or a semiconductor, depending on whether or how well it conducts electricity.

Electrical Conduction in Semiconductors

Technical Notes

The electrical property that makes semiconducting materials so valuable in electronics applications arises from the fact that their electrical conductivity can be continuously varied.

P-N Junction Physics

Technical Notes

When p-type semiconductor and n-type semiconductor materials are placed in physical contact, the area around the contact (known as the junction) behaves differently than either of the two source materials.

Diode Physics

Technical Notes

The characteristic response of a solid state diode to an external electrical potential or to an energy source such as light forms the basis for devices such as bipolar junction transistors, solar cells, LEDs, lasers and photodiodes.

Bipolar Junction Transistor Physics

Technical Notes

BJT operation involves both electrons and holes. It can be configured as either a PNP transistor or an NPN transistor which can be constructed as either a three-layer sandwich or as a planar device.

MOSFET Physics

Technical Notes

MOSFETs are planar surface devices that are the most commonly used variant of Field Effect Transistors (FETs);including Junction Gate Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) and Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistors (IGFETs).

FinFET Physics

Technical Notes

It can be seen that all of the familiar components of a MOS device are present in the FinFET (drain, source, gate, gate dielectric) and that the device more effectively separates the source and drain from the substrate silicon.

Flash Transistor Physics

Technical Notes

Flash transistors are used in memory devices. Their design is similar to that of MOSFETs with the main design difference being that they employ two gates rather than one.

Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Films

Technical Notes

Polysilicon thin films are produced using a process known as chemical vapor deposition or CVD. Heavily doped polysilicon and poly-silicide films have been used as gate electrodes and interconnects in MOS devices.

Silicon Based Epitaxial Thin Films

Technical Notes

Epitaxy is defined as the "regularly oriented growth of one crystalline substance on another". Both homoepitaxy and heteroepitaxy processes are used in semiconductor device fabrication.
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