Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) processes deposit thin films by using physical processes such as evaporation or sputtering. These processes vaporize material from a solid source under high temperature/high vacuum or plasma and redeposit the material on the substrate surface. Thermal evaporation and sputtering are the primary methods of PVD. Thermal evaporation vaporizes the source material by heating it in vacuum while sputtering uses a plasma to produce ion bombardment (normally argon ions) that creates a vapor from the source material. Films that can be deposited by PVD include most metals and dielectric materials.
Thermal and pressure-based Mass Flow Controllers
(MFCs) and Meters (MFMs) are designed to meet a broad variety of processing applications. Most MKS mass flow control and metering products offer both analog (0-5 VDC; 4-20 mA) and digital (Devicenet, Profibus, EtherCAT, RS485) I/O with embedded Modbus and an Ethernet user interface.
Ozone gas delivery products are suitable for a variety of purposes including TEOS/O3 SACVD. They incorporate field proven, high concentration, ultra-clean ozone generation technology as well as integrated ozone concentration monitor, flow control, and power distribution. Safety monitors, status indicator, and ozone destruct are available on some models.
MKS offers a line of digitally controlled, web-enabled gas flow ratio measurement and control technology for multi-channel gas flow distribution. The DELTA™ II
mass flow ratio controller divides and controls mixed process gas flows to either multiple chambers or zones within a process chamber at ratios specified by the user to maximize process uniformity and repeatability. The DELTA II is used in a variety of flow splitting applications, including etch, strip and CVD.
RF Power Generators
deliver reliable solid state power for today's thin film deposition applications. MKS RF generators insure consistent, repeatable power delivery in the most critical applications.
The SurePower 13.56 MHz product line offers the highest power density available, up to 13 kW in a 3U full rack package. SurePower uses patented intrinsic power amplifier protection and embedded V-I sensor to achieve superior reliability and power accuracy.
The KEINOS™ line of plasma generators are designed for pulsed duty applications in environments that experience fast impedance changes such as PECVD. The KEINOS line of generators delivers up to 13 kW of power with pulsing to 20 KHz, multiple set point pulsing, pulse shaping, and frequency tuning. MKS also produces a line of pulsed DC power generators for use in PECVD applications.
MKS offers a variety of plasma-based reactive gas generators
designed for both general use and for specific processes. These generators provide reliable sources of active NF3
and other fluorine-based radical species as well as reactive species derived from O2
O. These generators find application in deposition technologies in which remote sources of plasma species are needed and in maintenance functions such as the generation of reactive species for CVD chamber cleaning.
The AX7610 is a general duty microwave plasma source for use in remote plasma applications and reactive gas generation. It is designed to be integrated into a microwave plasma subsystem comprised of power supplies, microwave magnetron heads, matching systems, etc. MKS offers a variety of microwave power generators, magnetron heads and system accessories.
MKS offers a line of RF and DC power generators
for applications that include PVD and direct plasma PECVD applications. Product frequencies range from DC to high RF frequencies with power levels up to 100 kW.
MKS offers the high performance P-Series MFCs
and meters for applications in ALD processing. These are metal sealed, pressure insensitive MFC/MFMs with full scales up to 250 slm. Key for precise gas pulse production in ALD applications, they exhibit less than 750 millisecond settling time and are multi-gas, multi-range units with both analog and digital I/O and embedded Modbus and Ethernet user interfaces.
Ozone generation products from MKS are suitable for a variety of purposes including TEOS/O3 SACVD. They incorporate field proven, high concentration, ultra-clean ozone generation technology as well as integrated ozone concentration monitor, flow control, and power distribution. Safety monitors, status indicator, and ozone destruct are available on some models.
The Paragon H* and R*evolution remote plasma sources find use in ALD as an ultra-clean source of reactive gas for wafer pre-cleaning to promote film adhesion as well as for generating reactive precursors.
The T3Bi exhaust throttle valve, an intelligent, high speed exhaust valve, provides fast downstream vacuum/pressure control for ALD applications. This throttle valve is designed for fast recovery from flow and pressure variations, a pre-requisite for vacuum control in ALD systems.
MKS gas composition monitors are based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) technologies. The MultiGas™ 2030
is an operator-friendly FTIR-based analyzer capable of ppb to ppm sensitivity for multiple gas species process monitoring applications. It has permanently stored calibration spectra, simplifying installation and calibration needs. The Vision 2000-C™
gas analyzer is an application-specific RGA designed for continuous in situ monitoring of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and etching processes during chamber clean, passivation and deposition. The Vision 2000-C is designed to detect subtle changes in low concentration species and high mass species decay with respect to time.
MKS also offers the Process Sense™ non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer for use in monitoring CVD and etch chamber cleaning processes. The Process Sense™ endpoint sensor is a small, low cost partial-pressure analyzer specifically designed to determine the completion of plasma chamber cleaning of deposition chambers. Process SenseÊis based on near infrared absorption.
Downstream effluents in some thin film manufacturing processes can lead to yield loss and excessive equipment downtime due to clogged forelines, damaged pumps and valves, and contaminated transducers. Clogged lines simultaneously reduce flow conductance and raise particle counts. Effluent problems can also create serious safety issues. MKS has developed a series of process traps
and effluent management solutions and vacuum line heaters to help maintain clear piping.
MKS offers a Programmable Automation Platform
(PAC) that can be easily configured to perform standard control and automation tasks. The advanced analytics feature of the Automation Platform provides a smarter automation solution. It can be configured to connect, monitor, control, analyze, and optimize processes, fully delivering on the concept of "learned" automation. The Automation Platform supports the MKS SenseLink™
QM application for real-time multivariate analytics, incorporates knowledge and solutions in design of experiments (DOE) and process optimization, and applies it to controls and automation. In addition to supporting advanced control algorithms (both MKS and third party), the Automation Platform easily integrates with other MKS devices and instruments including pressure gauges, mass flow controllers, valves, gas analysis solutions, etc.
Baratron capacitance manometers
are widely used for direct pressure measurement in thin film deposition applications.